Types of Communication Systems and its Components

What Is Communication system? Its Types & Its Basic Components

What is Communication?

The transfer of information from one place to another place using some sort of medium is called Communication. The information could be in sound or visual or any other form.

There are two main types :

Baseband Communication:

The type of communication that doesn’t need the modulation for the transmission of the signal is termed as baseband communication. The signal that is transmitted is said to be baseband signal or message signal. Baseband signals have sizable power. So it has to be transmitted through a wire, coaxial cables or fiber.

Carrier Communication:

The type of communication which requires the modulation of the signal for its transmission is called carrier communication. In modulation, the original signal is superimposed on a carrier signal with a higher frequency range. Which can be easily transmitted using an antenna.

Components Of Communication System

A typical communication system comprises of following components.
1) Source
2) Input Transducer
3) Transmitter
4) Channel
5) Receiver
6) Output transducer
7) Destination

Communication system


The source is something which originates the message. It can be human’s voice, camera’s video, a typed message or data.

Input Transducer

A transducer is a sensor which converts any other form (pressure, light) of a signal into electrical signal. Input transducer converts any other form of energy into electrical signals. This electrical signal is information which needs to be transmitted.


The transmitter is a circuit which modifies the input electrical signal into a suitable form and transmits it through an antenna.

The transmitter contains a modulator. In baseband communication, the modulator is not necessary.
The modulator superimposes the baseband signal onto a carrier signal with high frequency. Due to modulation, the signal’s frequency range shifts into higher frequency range. This modulated signal is ready for efficient transmission through the specified medium.


Channel is the medium by which the modulated signal is transmitted to the receiver. Wire, coaxial cable, radio link, an optical fiber and a waveguide are the examples of a channel.
Unfortunately, there are noises in the channel. which also adds up and modifies the transmitted signal.


The receiver receives the transmitted signal. The receiver consists of a demodulator.
The demodulator demodulates the received signal (modulated signal) using demodulation technique and recovers the baseband signal (original signal).

Output transducer

The output transducer converts the electrical signal into its original form. Because we need the original message that the source originated. It converts it into a form which can be understood by the destination unit.


The destination is the unit to which the message is communicated.

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